Plants and insects in interactions: multitrophic associations

Vladimir Žikić, Marijana Ilić Milošević, Maja Lazarević, Saša S. Stanković


Studying a biological species, we are very often obliged to examine many other species which are directly or indirectly related to the particular species in order to have broader perspective of its being. Interactions between organisms can be perceived on various levels concerning biological study areas, such as ecology, physiology, morphology etc. In this place, the authors have given some peculiar examples concerning parasitism. This specific interaction is very common in the animal kingdom, having in mind that about a half of all known organisms are parasitic. The importance of this phenomenon is reflected on many aspects of life, propelling evolution and speciation of each member in the relation.


parasitism, parasitoids, hosts, defending strategies

Full Text:



Albert, V.A., Williams, S.E., Chase, M.W. 1992: Carnivorous plants: phylogeny and structural evolution. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 257 (5076): 1491-1495.

Auko, T.H., Trad, B.M., Silvestre, R. 2014: Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 58(4): 376-378.

Belshaw, R., Quicke, D.L. 2003: The cytogenetics of thelytoky in a predominantly asexual parasitoid wasp with covert sex. Genome, 46(1): 170-173.

Bézier, A., Annaheim, M., Herbinière, J., Wetterwald, C., Gyapay, G., Bernard-Samain, S., Pfister-Wilhem, R. 2009: Polydnaviruses of braconid wasps derive from an ancestral nudivirus. Science, 323(5916): 926-930.

Darwin, C. 1872: On The origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. John Murray. London. 502 p. Lulu. com.

Davis, R.H., Nahrstedt, A. 1979: Linamarin and lotaustralin as the source of cyanide in Zygaena filipendulae. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 64B: 395-397.

Floate, K.D. 2010: Gall-inducing aphids and mites associated with the hybrid complex of cottonwoods, Populus spp. (Salicaceae), on Canada’s grasslands. In Shorthouse, J.D. and Floate, K.D. (eds.) – Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands. Vol. 1: Ecology and Interactions in Grassland Habitats, Biological Survey of Canada (BSC), Chapter 13, 281-300 p.

Fowler, S.V., Lawton, J.H. 1985: Rapidly induced defenses and talking trees: the devil's advocate position. American Naturalist, 126(2): 181-195.

Harvey, J.A., Wagenaar, R., Bezemer, T.M. 2009: Interactions to the fifth trophic level: secondary and tertiary parasitoid wasps show extraordinary efficiency in utilizing host resources. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78(3): 686-692.

Kitching, I.J. 2002: The phylogenetic relationships of Morgan's sphinx, Xanthopan morganii (Walker), the tribe Acherontiini, and allied long‐tongued hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae, Sphinginae). Zoological journal of the Linnean Society, 135(4): 471-527.

Kjellberg, F., Jousselin, E., Hossaert-McKey, M., Rasplus, J.Y. 2005. Biology, ecology, and evolution of fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae). In: Raman, A., Schaefer, C.W., Withers, T.M. (eds.), Biology, ecology and evolution of gall-inducing arthropods: 539-572, Enfield, NH: Sciences Publisher, Inc.

Kopelke, J.P. 1998: Oviposition Strategies of Gall-making Species of the Sawfly Genera Pontania, Euura and Phyllocolpa (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae: Nematinae). Entomologia Generalis, 22(3): 251-275.

Larson, K.C., Whitham, T.G. 1991: Manipulation of food resources by a gall-forming aphid: the physiology of sink-source interactions. Oecologia, 88(1): 15-21.

Miller, J., Belgers, J.D., Beentjes, K., Zwakhals, K., van Helsdingen, P. 2013: Spider hosts (Arachnida, Araneae) and wasp parasitoids (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ephialtini) matched using DNA barcodes. Biodiversity data journal, 1: e992.

Piper, R. 2007: Extraordinary animals: An encyclopedia of curious and unusual animals. Greenwood Publishing Group. London. 321 p.

Rouhbakhsh, D., Clark, M.A., Baumann, L., Moran, N.A., Baumann, P. 1997: Evolution of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway in Buchnera (Aphid Endosymbionts): Studies of plasmid-associated trpEG within the genus Uroleucon. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 8(2): 167-176.

Schlenke, T.A., Morales, J., Govind, S., Clark, A.G. 2007: Contrasting infection strategies in generalist and specialist wasp parasitoids of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Pathogens, 3(10): e158.

Song, Y.Y., Zeng, R.S., Xu, J.F., Li, J., Shen, X., Yihdego, W.G. 2010: Interplant communication of tomato plants through underground common mycorrhizal networks. PLoS One, 5(10): e13324.

Spencer, K.A. 1973: Agromyzidae (Diptera) of economic importance (Vol. 9). Springer Science & Business Media. Berlin. 418 p.

Stoltz, D.B., Vinson, S.B. 1977: Baculovirus-like particles in the reproductive tracts of female parasitoid wasps II: the genus Apanteles. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 23(1): 28-37.

Stone, G.N., Schönrogge, K., Atkinson, R.J., Bellido, D., Pujade-Villar, J. 2002: The population biology of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Annual review of entomology, 47(1): 633-668.

Sullivan, D.J. 1987: Insect hyperparasitism. Annual review of entomology, 32(1): 49-70.

Turlings, T.C., Loughrin, J.H., Mccall, P.J., Röse, U.S., Lewis, W.J., Tumlinson, J.H. 1995: How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 92(10): 4169-4174.

Winterhagen, P. 2015: Strategy for sneaking into a host's home: The cuckoo wasp Omalus biaccinctus (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) inserts its eggs into living aphids that are the prey of its host. European Journal of Entomology, 112(3): 557–559.

Yukawa, J., Rohfritsch, O. 2005: Biology and ecology of gall-inducing Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). In: A., Schaefer, C.W., Withers, T.M. (eds.), Biology, ecology, and evolution of gall-inducing arthropods 1: 273-304, Enfield, NH: Sciences Publisher, Inc.

Zagrobelny, M., Bak, S., Ekstrom. C.T., Olsen, C.E., Moller, B.L. 2007: The cyanogenic glucoside composition of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) as effected by feeding on wild-type and transgenic lotus populations with variable cyanogenic glucoside profiles. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 37(1): 10-18.

Zhang, Q.H., Schlyter, F. 2010: Inhibition of predator attraction to kairomones by non-host plant volatiles for herbivores: a bypass-trophic signal. PloS One, 5(6): e11063.

Žikić, V., Stanković, S.S., Petrović, A., Ilić-Milošević, M., van Achterberg, C. 2013: Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae). Archives of Biological Sciences, 65(3): 1027-1035.


  • There are currently no refbacks.